EIA Process and Procedures
(As recommended by the Ministry Of Environment and Forest, Government Of India). The EIA process in India is made up of the following phases
Screening is done to see whether a project requires environmental clearance as per the statutory notifications
Scoping and consideration of alternatives
Scoping is a process of detailing the terms of reference of EIA. It has to be done by the consultant with the project proponent and guidance, if need be, from Impact Assessment Agency.
Base line data collection
Base line data describes the existing environmental status of the identified study area. The site-specific primary data should be monitored for the identified parameters and supplemented by secondary data if available.
Impact prediction is a way of ‘mapping’ the environmental consequences of the significant aspects of the project and its alternatives.
Assessment of alternatives, delineations of mitigation measures and environmental impact statement
For every project, possible alternatives should be identified and environmental attributes compared. Alternatives should cover both project location and process technologies. Alternatives should consider ‘no project’ option also. Alternatives should then be ranked for selection of the best environmental optimum economic benefits to the community at large.
After the completion of EIA report the law requires that the public must be informed and consulted on a proposed development after the completion of EIA report.
Decision making process involve consultation between the project proponent and the impact assessment authority.
Monitoring the clearance conditions
Monitoring should be done during both construction and operation phases of a project. This is not only to ensure that the commitments made are complied with but also to observe whether the predictions made in the EIA reports were correct or not.