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Environment is regarded as a Public good and Environmental issues are not constrained to local and national boundaries alone. Transboundary environmental problems are those problems that migrate beyond the jurisdiction with the power to control that problem. Transboundary Pollution is difficult to control because the damage from the pollution occurs in a locality that has no authority over the generator of the pollution and hence arises a need for international cooperation. This has in turn led to the formation of International Treaties and Conventions. India like many other countries obligated herself either as a Contracting Party (CP) by ratifying treaties or as a Signatory (S) by officially signing the treaties and agreeing to carry out provisions of various treaties. 

India as Contracting Party
   
India has been a Contracting Party to the following Conventions.

  1. Conventions on wetlands of International importance especially as Waterfowl Harital. 1971
  2. Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, and stockpiling of bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction.1972
  3. Convention covering the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.1972
  4. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 1973
  5. Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973.
    http://www.imo.org/Conventions/contents.asp?doc_id=678&topic_id=258 
    http://www.nea.gov.vn/English/Inter_Conventions/MARPOL-1973.htm 
  6. Convention on the conservation of Migratory species of Wild Animals. 1979
  7. Convention on Migratory species

India as Signatory Party
  
 
India has been a Signatory (S) to the following Conventions:

  1. Convention relative to the preservation of Fauna and Flora in their Natural State. 1936
  2. International convention for the Regulation of Whaling. 1946
    http://www.oceanlaw.net/texts/summaries/iwc.htm#list 
    http://www.oceanlaw.net/texts/iwc.htm  
  3. International Plant Protection Convention.1951
    1. New Revised Text approved by the FAO - November 1997
    2. Text Presently in Force
    3. Status
  4. The Antarctic Treaty. 1959
  5. Convention Concerning the protection of workers against Ionizing Radiations.1960
  6. Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the atmosphere in Outer Space and Under Water. 1963
  7. International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage. 1975
  8. Convention on the conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.1980

Important Treaties

  1. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 

  2. Convention on Assistance in the Case of a nuclear accident or Radiological Emergency.

  3. Agenda 21

  4. Rio Declaration

  5. Stockholm 1972

  6. Convention on Biological Diversity

  7. Convention to Combat Desertification

  8. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 

  9. Cartagene Protocol on Biosafety. 

  10. The Basel Convention on the control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. 

  11. Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change

  12. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 

  13. World Trade Agreement 

  14. Helsinki Protocol to LRTAP on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 percent. 

  15. Sofia Protocol to LRTAP concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or their Transboundary Fluxes. 

  16. Geneva protocol to LRTAP concerning the control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their transboundary fluxes. 

  17. United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 

  18. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. (The Earth Summit) 

  19. Second Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 2  

  20. Third Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 3 

  21. Fourth Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 4 

  22. Fifth Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 5

  23. Sixth Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 6 

  24. Seventh Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 7 

  25. Eight Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 8 

  26. Ninth Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 9 

  27. Ninth Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, COP 9 

  28. Johannesburg Summit 2002

 


 

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